Monday, May 25, 2020

Why Arent Jewish Women Circumcised by Shayne J.D. Cohen

Shayne J. D. Cohen presents an extensive study of the question â€Å"why aren’t Jewish women circumcised?† Throughout the book he examines this question in a number of different and unique ways. He writes this book in hopes to inform and educate the curious mind such as scholars and lay people. Furthermore, he states that â€Å"In this book I am interested not only in the history of Jewish circumcision but also, and perhaps even more so, in the history of Jewishness.† (Cohen, pg.xii) In other words, Cohen not only presents the reader with the history of the question, but also the history of the Jews and Christians. Overall, Shayne J. D. Cohen brings up the issue of gender within Judaism when he asks the question, also known as the title of the book,†¦show more content†¦He also brings up the claim of women’s superiority as well as arguments within both of these topics. In chapter five, Cohen explains that circumcision indicates that the normative way of being Jewish rests with Jewish men, therefore downgrading the status of women. After closely looking at this chapter in particular, I noticed that one can easily compare to this to course material. There are number of ways in which the status of women is lowered because of Jewish men throughout the class. For example, the inability to study and touch the Torah can serve as a downgrade towards the status of Jewish women. (Course notes, September 23, 2013) Chapter six entails that circumcision signals a moral, as well as an ontological defect in men. For example, it can be an excess of lust, therefore, the cutting of the foreskin can be looked at as a cure. Furthermore, chapter 7 presents that it is faith, not circumcision, which is the determining sign for Judaism. In other words, both men and women, therefore, can be equally as Jewish. This stand was pushed forward by Maimonides. Maimonides

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Characters In The Novel Catcher In The Rye - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 939 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/05/21 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Catcher in The Rye Essay Did you like this example? The world has become more unsafe, this is shown by the many examples of violence experienced around us. Humans are hurting each other like animals without any remorse. To make matters worse these actions are committed by adults upon other adults. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Characters In The Novel Catcher In The Rye" essay for you Create order In The Catcher in the Rye,a novel written by J.D. Salinger,is a book about a teenager trying to find a way to be true to himself while growing up in a world full of phonies. Holden Caulfield is the novels narrator and protagonist. He is a junior just expelled from school due to academic failure. Holden narrates in a weary and cynical voice despite his intelligence and sensitivity. In his relation with other characters, he discovers their phoniness and the ugliness of the world which he finds almost unbearable. He tries to protect himself from the disappointment and the pain of the world by having doubts about reality. Through other small characters we are able to unleash the inaction, phoniness and the judgmental nature of Holden Caulfield. In the novel we get to learn of the death of Holdens brother known as Allie. Being a minor character we are able to learn that Holden has a problem in letting go the trauma he went through when his brother died. When his brother died, Holden injured his fist which he went ahead to use in a fist fight which wasnt the right decision. He narrates that, It probably wouldve hurt him a lot, but I did it with my right hand, and I cant make a good fist with that hand. (Salinger 43).Using the fist that had been injured when mourning the loss of his brother is self-defeating and due to this he ends up getting punched by Stradlater who is also another minor character. Another instance where the audience learns of the inaction by Holden is when he forms a snowball and does not have the desire to throw it at someone. He goes to the school bus with it and narrates, The bus driver opened the doors and made me throw it out. I told him I wasnt going to chuck it at anybody, but he wouldnt believe me. People never believe you. (Salinger 36-37). The bus driver makes him throw the snowball away. This scene helps readers learn about Holdens doubts towards reality and his reluctance to make decisions therefore inaction. In the novel we also get to learn that Holden is also phony despite accusing other characters especially adults of phoniness. The most famous phrase from the novel is probably phoniness. He uses this term to describe everything that is wrong committed by adults whether itrs running away from hardships or making bad decisions.He uses this excuse from his isolation from adulthood. Holden argues that the world is black and white and therefore categorizes people he meets as either being good or phony. While doing this he also forgets to check himself. He has a misleading personality which he finds unimportant and he in the long run notes that he is a compulsive liar.A good example is where he performs a prank on Mrs. Morrow, he narrates You take a guy like Morrow thatrs always snapping their towel at peoplers asses†really trying to hurt somebody with it (Salinger 57). He criticizes Morrow despite having pranked his mother. Another instance that we get to learn of his phoniness is where he describes another character by narrating that, Sensitive, that killed me. That guy Morrow was about as sensitive as a goddamn toilet seat. (Salinger 55). By referring to Morrow as a toilet seat we get to see the abusive side of Holden. Apart from being indecisive and phony, Holden is also judgmental on almost anything he comes in contact with. Holden is a peculiar character and one of his peculiar behaviors is how he is judgmental on many things and people that he meets. He criticizes people as being insecure, boring and phony. He writes of how other people, who are acting what would be seen to be normal as rather being phony. He says that That guy had just about everything. Sinus trouble, pimples, lousy teeth, halitosis, crumby fingernails. You had to feel a little sorry for that crazy sonuvabitch. (Salinger 39). You cant help but feel bad for the person being referred to. Holden judges him and body shames him using different parts of his body. In another incidence Holden cannot help himself in judging another character, Ernie, by saying that, Hes so good hes almost corny, in fact. I dont exactly know what I mean by that, but I mean it. I certainly like to hear him play, but sometimes you feel like turning his goddam piano over. I think its because sometimes when he plays, he sounds like the kind of guy that wont talk to you unless youre a big shot. (Salinger 80). Despite acknowledging that Ernie was a good piano player he still doesnt lack negative words for the artist. In the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, Holden the main character is shaped by other minor characters. Through them we are able to learn about his attitudes and behaviors. In summary, Secondary characters in the catcher in the Rye novel are used to define the character of Holden, the main character. Through his rival Stradlater and the school bus driver, readers are able to know of his indecisiveness by failing to take action. Readers are also able to learn of his phoniness when he pranks Mrs. Morrow while taking the train. Finally readers also learn that Holden is judgmental by how he judges the piano player, Ernie.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Guess Paper of Class 1sy Year English - 1570 Words

Class 1st Year English Guess Paper Commerce Important Questions: Section A: (Multiple Choice Questions) Note: Attempt all questions from this section. Q.1:- Choose the correct answer for each from the given option: i) The scene of the play progress is in ___________ room. Study romm Dining room Guest room Store ii) The Count Of Monte Cristos real name is Edward Lear Edmornd Lear Eddie Edmond Dantes iii) Mrs. Meldon hates the idea of War Spider Peace Boys iv) The poem Incident of the French Camp is written by Robert Downing William Shakespeare Robert Frost Robert Browning v) Quaid-e-Azam born in the year 1776 1876 1976 1878 vi) My son was ______________ Henry, and he was killed in a fight of which he knew very little.†¦show more content†¦First World War Second World War Trojan War Civil War Section B: (Short Answer Questions) Q2- Important Short answer Questions: Q:State briefly what the Pakistan Resolution decided? Q:Whay was Mrs. Meldon against Corries invention? Q:What is a Melodrama? OR What does Henry Corrie think , about human nature of war? Q:How did the Birkenhead Drill come to be wrecked? and where did the Birkenhead sink? OR Q:Describe one heroic action that took place after the Birkenhead went down? HQ:ow do you count Beauchamps role in The Counts Revenge ? Q:What is the difference between the General Assembly mand the Security Council? When was the U.N.O. founded? Q:Why was there a roar of laughter when author left the bank? Q:What message did Quaid-e-Azam deliver to the people of Pakistan in his first speech? Q:What is the difference between objective thinking and prejudice thinking? What is meant by universality of Science Mathematcis? Q:The writer mentions four contributions made by the Science. What are they? The writer concludes that education should contain three elements. What are they? Q:Describe the beauty of sweet Auburn in five lines as given in The Deserted Village OR When, where, by whom and how was the first aerial journey made? Q:What type of hardship can be faced in the forest according to Shakespeare? What is the moral of the poem? Q:What charges were levelled by the king against the Abbot of Canterburry? Q:What were the questions

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Wesfarmers Human Resource Planning

Question: Discuss about the Wesfarmersfor Human Resource Planning. Answer: Introduction All types of functionalities and operational activities within a business organization are based on a number of factors such as capital, raw material, labor etc. And from this human resource has to be considered as the backbone of the business corporation. So the management and proper planning of workforce is of very much significance (Blakely and Leigh, 2013). The below presented report has been analyzed Wesfarmers which is a multinational brand name in the sector of retail, chemicals, fertilizers, coal mining and industrial and safety products. The following report has been focused on the planning and managing the workforce of the mentioned business organization. Factors Affecting the Supply of Labor in the Organization Supply is the backbone of any of the operational activity in a corporation and labor is the one of the most significant factor which have many impacts on the functionalities in a firm. So the supply of same should be in an appropriate manner and flow. The below mentioned are some of the factors which can affect the supply of labor in Wesfarmers: Globalization: Due to globalization most of the companies have invested in diverse regions and countries and which impacts the demand and supply of labor (Barton and Court, 2012). The company invests in the developed nations as there is large availability of labor in these nations. Economy: There are chances of loss of jobs during hard economic times which mean less disposable income to the workforce. Most of the firms experience less production and which results in reduction in the supply of the labor. As per the current analysis Wesfarmers is a well established company and so the firm is experiencing a situation of oversupply of labor (Vandenbroek. 2016) As Wesfarmers is a retail industry there is diversity in the categories of labor force in the organization. For instance, the retail stores will have sales executives, store in charges, customer representatives etc. The mining sections will have a team of technical staff and expert executives who are skilled and have knowledge of the products. EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY STASTICS Change in employed 15-Feb 15-May 15-Aug 15-Nov 16-Feb Feb-15 to Feb-16 Mining 227.1 225 226 227.8 230.1 1.3 Retail Trade 1,223.40 1,227.40 1,246.20 1,270.20 1,291.70 5.6 Public Administration and Safety 735.6 735.7 736.4 738.8 741.9 0.9 (Source: Parliament of Australia, 2016, Employment by industry statistics: a quick guide.) Factors Effecting Demand of Labor in the Organization The below mentioned are the current factors which are having an impact on the demand of labor in Wesfarmers: The price of the products: An increase in the price of the products will tend the organizations to hire more labor The price of the output directly have an effect on the labor as it has an influence on the value of the marginal product of the labor. An increase in the price of the product will give a hike to the demand of the labor and which will make the labor curve shift upward. Technology: Technologies make a decrease in the demand of the labor as the machines are capable of performing working functions of a couple of workforce at a time (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). So for Wesfarmers installation of an automated machine will bring a reduction in the count of the workforce in the organization. Government Initiatives which Affect Demand and Labor Supply There are a number of initiatives taken by the governing bodies which causes many impacts on the demand and supply of labor in Wesfarmers and the industry and these initiatives have proven beneficial for the companies as these will allow the industry to hire potential workforce. Direct taxation reforms: The Australian governing bodies have focused in the reduction of the income tax and tax allowances for the group of lower paid employees (De Anca and Vega, 2016). And which will bring an increase in the post tax rewards and will acts as a plus point for the lower paid category. Investments in training and education for labor: To cope-up with the changing market trends the governing bodies has made investments of significant amounts for boosting up the workforce and increase the switching of occupations of the labor force For instance the private investors from USA and New Zealand will be investing an approx. amount of $252 million in the business sensitive sectors (100positivepolicies.org. 2017). Staff Diversity meets Current Organizational Requirements The policy of staff diversity is applicable and possible in large organizations such as Wesfarmers. The business corporation encourages this policy so as to make recruitment of diverse employees from different culture and regions so that they can work together, share their views, thoughts and aid the business corporation in the attainment of the organizational goals. As per the recent studies it has been observed that the people from different backgrounds have diverse dreams, thoughts and beliefs which will aid the organization in developing a strong organizational culture (Barton and Court, 2012). Sometimes diversity in workforce can also lead to some issues and problems for the management, as there will be poor communication between the employees from different regions. And this will impact the organizational culture adversely. However, businesses that embrace staff diversity have a positive and ethical culture motivating staff to do well and take right decisions often. As the abov e stated organization operates business activities in varied sectors, so there is diversity on a large scale in the variables such as ethnicity, skills age an abilities which is a plus point for the entity. These diverse variables has benefited the company on various grounds such as due to ethnic diversity in the workforce the issues of the consumers who are from different regions and speak different languages has solved and the firm has also developed more cultural awareness. The Current Organizational Strategies and Workforce Plans Wesfarmers is a well established brand name and also one of the best business corporation which is in recruiting the workforce across the globe. The company not only is into providing the jobs to the employees but also help in building an employees career. Workforce planning is a crucial and significant task for every business entity and the same is with Wesfarmers as well. For instance, as the warriors get ready before the wars the workforce planning prepares the employees for the competitive wars, the business organizations also have a need to prepare their employees to meet the set market standards and fulfill and satisfy the requirements of the ultimate customers. At Wesfarmers, current organizational strategy is effectively aligned with workforce plans (Bowen and Sosa, 2014). The management team of the business organization motivates the employees by making use of different activities such as rewards and incentive schemes, setting targets and giving them feedback so that they ca n effectively help the company to meet their targets Staff Turnover and Strategies for Addressing the Issues Wesfarmers is one of the multinational brand names of the industry which not only provides exceptional customer service but also provides huge employment benefits. The company provides employment to approximately one in 60 working Australians and one of 17 working Australians under 20 years of age (Sustainability.Wesfarmers. 2016). Also the company provides $8.4 billion dollars i.e. they provide salary to about 61 percent of Australian population. Some of the strategies employed by Wesfarmers to ensure low staff turnover include employees at the business organization go under extensive training about the procedures and the different processes before they begin working (Heizer and Barry, 2013). With this the employees will be well aware about the products and the processes and they will not face any of the issues regarding the same, and also they will be able to answer any of the queries of the customers. According to a recently carried out research by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) f ound Australia ranked last in a list of 11 developed countries in case of staff leaving within 1 year at 23%. An estimate has been made that 1 in 4 new employees leaves their job before their first 12 months is up (theretailsolution. 2016). The expenses for this turnover in Australia have been estimated at $3.8 billion in lost productivity and $385 million in avoidable recruitment costs. Strategies for Finding Skilled Labors from External Sources The below mentioned are the strategies which can be implemented by Wesfarmers in the organizational structure so as to find skilled and potential labor: Even after being a multinational brand Wesfarmers also faces the issue of finding potential and skillful labor. Wesfarmers conducts frequent recruitment drives where the company screens its candidates through different stages. So in such cases the company organize extensive training sessions to make the existing employees more capable and well-versed with all the concept of production and retailing (Clampitt, 2012). Wesfarmers encourages staff diversity and ensures to hire employees from different culture to get the best talent into the company. Moreover the company can also carry out some types of exams so as to sort and choose the best potential employees for the organization. Contingency Options The concept is concerned with an un-expected event or situation which will have many impacts on the financial health, professional image and market share and consumer base of the business corporation (Wisegeek. 2017). Here the contingency plan will work as the back-up plan or plan b which will help the organization in facing the extreme situations such as the loss of a large number of retiring personnel in a short period of time, health epidemic, remote location where replacement workers are hard to attract, etc. The organization needs to develop some contingency options to tackle with the above mentioned situations (Bamberger, Biron and Meshoulam, 2014). The following are some of the contingency options which can be used by the Wesfarmers: In case loss to the company by retiring of large number of personnel the corporation can provide the training sessions to the employees on the managerial skills so that they will be able to get shifted on the retired employees. For the situation of health epidemic the company should always be ready with the sense of medical awareness and maintenance of proper hygiene in the workplace. The company need to organize medical campaigns at regular period of time an also provide medical incentives and medical facilities within the office premises. Also the firm can implement health and safety policies and laws within the organization so as to maintain the health and safety standards. Organizational Strategies and Changes Required for the modification of the Employees Retaining the employees has become a very crucial task for each and every organization and same if for Wesfarmers. In order to retain workforce, it is very much significant for the business entity to offer them enhanced career development opportunities. By organizing and providing them with the frequent training and education programs the company will be making the employees aware about the products and the processes, the changing market trends, weaknesses and strengths effectively of the corporation (Campbell and Reyes-Picknell, 2015). It will eventually help them get enhanced skills and competencies. The company has a need to divert their focus on the staff diversity. The company also needs to develop some sought of staffing changes such as the firm needs to modify the recruitment and selection process, they should make use of contemporary methods while selecting an recruiting the individuals. Organizations Workforce needs for One to Two years in the Future As the modern era has speeding up towards modernization and technological up-gradations, in one or two years, the employees of Wesfarmers will have a need to be updated and upgraded with the with latest marketing trends, modern mechanisms, tools and contemporary methods of working of the sector. Secondly, there will be a need of better reward systems so as to encourage and motivate and also to retain the employees for a longer period and this will also encourage workforce to openly share their ideas and innovation. The company also has a need to build strong and better ethics and working culture for their future development of the business organization. As these above needs of the workforce will be fulfilled they will be motivated which will enable them to work with a greater level of enthusiasm and dedication will also be more. Which in turn will ten them to provide a better quality and also there will be an enhancement in the productivity level. As a result the corporation will be able to meet the organizational goals. Organizations Current Workforce Capacity to meet Predicted Demands Wesfarmers as being a global brand has business in a number of nations and regions and it is growing with a great speed. And as the expansions are increasing the company has a need of huge workforce to handle the business in different locations. The business organization claims to provide its employees not just a job but a rising chance bring a boost to his/her career. The company provides a high range of job satisfaction for employees since it also provides various health benefits and other incentives. Since the company is in an expansion stage it requires a huge workforce to meet predicted demands for goods and services. The organization is in a need of skilled and potential staff individuals, for instance store in charge, sales executives and customer representatives for the outlets, technical experts and demonstrators etc. Strategies to Address Gaps or Over-Supply of Future Required Staff Although Wesfarmers is a multination retail and manufacturing brand and has a demand of huge workforce, but oversupply of labor can create some issues and problems for the business organization in the future.. It is the duty of the HR department to hire a well skilled and potential workforce on the demand of the company. The HR department of the organization will have to monitor and encourage staff diversity; need to carry out extensive screening tests, training assessments and work assessments frequently so as to sort out the labor that is not up-to the mark. Due to modernization the company has made changes and also brought development in the operating activities. Some updated systems and machines have been installed in the organization and which has made the company to make reduction in the count of the staff. Options for Communicating Strategies to Staff members Affected by Change At any business organization the communication strategies are considered as to be the primary function offering a structure and effective communication plan so as to develop and maintain strong bonds and positive relationships with clients, stakeholders and employees. The marketing and the public relations department are involved and are responsible for building the communication strategies and the approach followed is highly systematic. The business organization have a belief that communication is not just a management function but a way to engage those who need to change their ways of interacting with each other either internally or externally. Wesfarmers can make use of the visual strategies which consists of the webpages and pictorial demonstrations; this will aid the organization in developing awareness and making understand the employees about the organizational structure of the company. And also the written strategies can be made in use such as e-mails; fax and chats which are less time consuming and less expensive. Recommendations to management The below mentioned are the recommendations to the management of Wesfarmers: From the above mentioned points it has been observed that there is a huge need of staff, the company should focus on hiring staff from diverse cultures. The company should organize recruitment campaigns in different localities and regions so as to hire diverse staff. Wesfarmers should involve the employees in extensive training sessions and helping them develop their personalities as per market demand. So that they will be well-versed with different procedures and processes. Wesfarmers must formulate effective communication strategies in order to communicate important information about the company in a diverse network of employees well. Conclusion From the above carried out analysis it has been concluded that the planning and managing the workforce is a very crucial and significant task. Wesfarmers is a multinational and retail brand and need to carry out number of activities for hiring an appropriate supply of workforce within the business organization. References Blakely, E.J. and Leigh, N.G., 2013.Planning local economic development. Sage. Barton, D. and Court, D., 2012. Making advanced analytics work for you.Harvard business review,90(10), pp.78-83. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014.Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. De Anca, C. and Vega, A.V., 2016.Managing diversity in the global organization: Creating new Business values. Springer. Barton, D. and Court, D., 2012. Making advanced analytics work for you.Harvard business review,90(10), pp.78-83. Bowen, W.G. and Sosa, J.A., 2014.Prospects for faculty in the arts and sciences: A study of factors affecting demand and supply, 1987 to 2012. Princeton University Press. Heizer, R. and Barry, R., 2013.Operation Management, Sustainability and Supply Chain management(Vol. 11). Pearson, UK. Clampitt, P.G., 2012.Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness: Problems| Strategies| Solutions. Sage Publications. Dodge, A. ed., 2015.Public relations: Strategies and tactics. New York, NY: Pearson. Bamberger, P.A., Biron, M. and Meshoulam, I., 2014.Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge. Campbell, J.D. and Reyes-Picknell, J.V., 2015.Uptime: Strategies for excellence in maintenance management. CRC Press. Sustainability.Wesfarmers, 2016, Sustainability at Wesfarmers, Assessed on 12th March 2017, https://sustainability.wesfarmers.com.au/. Vandenbroek, P, 2016, Employment by industry statistics: a guide, Assessed on 4th April 2017, https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1516/Quick_Guides/EmployIndustry. 100positivepolicies.org, 2017, Positive Policy, Generating through Trade and Investment, Assessed on 4th April 2017, https://www.100positivepolicies.org.au/generating_jobs_through_trade_and_investment. Theretailsolution, 2016, Staff turnover in the first 12 months in Australia is costing $3.8, Assessed on 4th April 2017, https://theretailsolution.com.au/staff-turnover-in-the-first-12-months-in-australia-is-costing-3-8-billion/. Wisegeek, 2017, What is a contingency plan? Assessed on 4th April 2017, https://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-contingency-plan.htm.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

This Is Me, Take It Or Leave It free essay sample

Hey, my name is D.J., but I also respond to the nickname my friends gave me which is â€Å"Deej†. I am 18 years old, and for the last five years of my life, I have resided in the very catty one horse town of Fair Haven, New Jersey. In Fair Haven, the most common topic of discussion is who is down on their luck or who cheated on who. In truth, I do not live an exhilarating life, in fact my life is nothing special but, that depends on your perspective. I mean in my lifetime I have not visited exotic places, met famous people or won an award for being exceptional. In reality I am an ordinary high school senior, I am currently employed as a cashier at the local Foodtown and as you must know what a ball that is. The mundane task of greeting the customer, asking them if they have there Foodtown card and then punching numbers into the ancient device they call a register. We will write a custom essay sample on This Is Me, Take It Or Leave It or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In many essays, you will read of the football player who scored the winning touchdown or the girl who suddenly became obsessed with with giving back to her community right around the time applying for colleges became a priority. That is all good and dandy but, in truth that is not me. I consider myself a very blunt person, I will not beat around the bush or write an essay which does not reflect me as a person. You will read how these applicants felt so good about themselves, when they sacrificed their spare time to volunteer building low cost homes. I on the other hand, will tell you that I felt good about myself when I go to Dunkin’ Donuts and buying myself a cup off coffee. My favorite thing in life is going to Dunkin’ Donuts and the first thing I look for when I visit a college is where the nearest Dunkin’ Donuts is located. I am not perfect person or will even attempt portray myself as one. Though I consider myself an extremely good hearted, hard working, and driven individual. On the flip side I am stubborn, thick headed, and pessimistic teenager. For example as a kid in restaurants I dined at, I would seek great enjoyment from screaming fire and stirring up the people dining there into a chaotic frenzy. Some people may find that odd. However, I love my sick sense of humor which till this day I possess and consider it one of my greatest qualities. What I enjoy to do is also not the norm of course I enjoying hanging out with my friends but, I also relish in watching the history channel, drooling over cars I can never afford, and I religiously watching horror movies, its an addiction. Moreover, I will watch Fox News channel and get so drawn in, you would swear I was not watching old newscasters talking about politics. In conclusion, I am no athlete or scholar but hey, I am one of a kind.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Show how and explain why Priestley creates dramatic tension in the Birling house even before the inspector arrives Essays

Show how and explain why Priestley creates dramatic tension in the Birling house even before the inspector arrives Essays Show how and explain why Priestley creates dramatic tension in the Birling house even before the inspector arrives Essay Show how and explain why Priestley creates dramatic tension in the Birling house even before the inspector arrives Essay Essay Topic: Death and the Maiden Literature In the first act, Priestley introduces the characters to the audience in the play and their lifestyles. Using language, props and costume, Priestley shows the characters are wealthy. For example at the beginning of the play, Birling says, You ought to like this port, Gerald. . The upper class of the time (1912) generally drank port after dinner. The Birlings are gathered after dinner to celebrate the engagement between Sheila Birling and Gerald Croft. Birling is a rich businessman who is only interested in making money- Its my duty to keep labor costs down. Money is his first priority. Priestley wants Birling to sound ignorant, stupid, foolish nai ve and unsympathetic. Birling makes assumptions of what will happen in the future, for example, he says the Titanic will never sink, and he says that the English will never go to war because the Germans dont really want it. Since the play is set in spring 1912 none of the events have actually taken place yet, but the audience is living in the 1940s so they know Birling is wrong. This is called dramatic irony. His wife, Sybil is much of a sexist, traditionalist type lady. Sheila Birling is a young woman who is very pleased with life at the beginning of the book. Her brother Eric is quite mysterious and comes across as very strange. On the surface, the mood in the Birlings house is jovial. Everyone seems quite happy with his or her lives but sometimes language they use shows there is tension. Tension is the anticipation of something bad, stressed or uncomfortable coming. The characters dont want to let the tension show because this should be a happy night for everyone and they dont want to make a big scene or cause a fuss. For example, one point of tension before the Inspector arrives is when Birling is talking about the absence of Sir and Lady Croft. Im not sorry that were celebrating quietly like this- Mrs. B cuts in saying, Much nicer really. The subtext of what Mrs. B is saying is shut up. She wants her husband to stop talking before someone is embarrassed by what he says. This tells us she is protective of Gerald because she doesnt want him to become embarrassed. There seems to be a problem between Gerald and Sheila. Although they are getting engaged, there are moments of tension between them. For example, when they have just finished dinner, Gerald says, In fact, I insist upon being one of the family now. Ive been trying long enough, havent I (Sheila does not reply, with more insistence) Havent I? You know I have. At this point Mrs. B cuts in and says, smiling, Of course she does. Here, Mrs. B cuts in to prevent an argument from arising and hide the tension. She is hiding the tension for Geralds benefit. Mrs. B wants to protect him because she respects him and likes him. She tries to cut off the subject but fails. Sheila continues- half serious, half playful, Yes- except for all of last summer, when you never came near me, and I wondered what had happened to you. Gerald replies, And Ive told you- I was awfully busy at the works all that time. Sheila replies in the same tone as before Yes, thats what you say. This seems to be a topic that has been previously discussed between Gerald and Sheila. We know this because Gerald says, And Ive told you- meaning obviously they have discussed this at length before. She approaches this subject carefully because although she is serious, she cannot let her anger show because she does not want to make a big scene. She knows something was not right about the time and hints Geralds response is a lie when she says, Yes, thats what you say. When Gerald pauses-And Ive told you- I was awfully busy at the works all that time. At the pause, he is preparing what he will say as it is a lie that has previously been told. He doesnt want to change his story by accident. Their discussion continues with Mrs. B, Now, Sheila, dont tease him. When youre married youll realize that men with important work to do sometimes have to spend nearly all their time and energy on their business. Youll have to get used to that, just as I had. Sheila responds, I dont believe I will. Then to Gerald in the half serious half playful tone, So you be careful. Here, Mrs. B is saying that all men will have affairs and that the women will just have to get used to that. She knows Gerald was with another woman during the last summer but is protecting him from enduring more embarrassment. She thinks her daughter should accept the situation. When Sheila replies, she shows the change in attitude. She could easily be a feminist later on in her life. She believes more in equality than tradition. Out of all the characters, Sheila is the most sympathetic with Eva Smith. She represents change not only in sexism but also equality within classes. She is hope, optimism, and change because she is not selfish. She is not concerned about money at the end of the play. It is significant that Lord and Lady Croft are absent from the celebration. They appear to not be there because they are out of the country but that could easily just be made up to prevent embarrassment. They are not at dinner because they feel the Birlings are their social inferior. They do not approve of the engagement and choose not to be there from their own free will. When this subject comes up, tension arises. Birling says, Its a pity Sir George and er Lady Croft cant be with us, but theyre abroad so it cant be helped. As I told you, they sent me a very nice cable couldnt be nicer. Im not sorry that were celebrating quietly like this- Mrs. B then cuts in with Much nicer really. Gerald then finishes with, I agree. The pauses at the beginning of Birlings speech show tension. He does not seem to recall the maiden name of Geralds mother so he calls her Lady Croft to save embarrassment. This shows the Crofts are very aloof and do not speak to Birling often. Mrs. B cuts in to stop her husband rambling and Gerald ends the conversation with, I agree. Gerald is just saying he agrees to save embarrassment and to end the conversation. He may disagree strongly but doesnt feel comfortable enough to present that. Later though, when the men are on their own Birling shows he is aware that Geralds parents feel that Gerald could have done better socially. Birling says, I have an idea that your mother Lady Croft while she doesnt object to my girl- feels you might have done better for yourself socially- At this comment, Gerald feels rather embarrassed but Birling says that it is okay for his mother to feel like that and starts showing off that he may be on his chance to be knighted sometime soon. Eric behaves very strangely. He seems to not particularly know what is going on. After Gerald and Sheila have their moment of tension (Yes-except for all of last summer ) Eric suddenly guffaws out of nowhere. He seems to be as Sheila puts it, Squiffy. Eric is very familiar with the decanter and wants to continue getting drunk. He also starts saying strange things. When the women arent in the room the men start talking about women and how they are obsessed with clothes. Birling says, Yes, but youve got to remember, my boy, that clothes mean something quite different to a woman. Not just something to wear- and not only something to make em look prettier- but- well, a sort of sign or token of their self respect. Gerald then says, Thats true. Eric responds, eagerly, Yes, I remember but then he checks himself. Birling stops and says, Well what do you remember? Eric replies, confused, Nothing. Here Eric seems to be covering up for what he said earlier, perhaps he let it slip because he was drunk. At the end of the play we find out he is actually an alcoholic. We find he got Eva Smith pregnant in a drunken state that led her to Mrs. Birling. He knows this, while the audience doesnt. He probably is talking about Eva Smith and how she loved clothes. Priestly deliberately creates moments of dramatic tension for a number of reasons. He does this to show the relationship between the characters in the first place, before the inspector arrives. Another moment of tension occurs in Act 1. The following quote is taken after dinner, when everyone has left except for Gerald and Birling. Birling is showing off. He says, So as long as we behave ourselves, dont get into the police court or start a scandal eh? After this he starts laughing complacently. Gerald replies with a laugh, You seem to be a nice well-behaved family Birling cuts him off with, We think we are - This is hinting further on in the play, what Birling says will actually happen. The Inspector arrives at the Birling house only one page after this conversation. Dramatic irony occurs when Gerald says, You seem to be a nice well-behaved family. The key world is seem playing on the fact that they really arent. When Birling replies, it is again dramatic irony. He says think as if theres a possibility theyre not. They are foreshadowing the later events in the play, which is another reason there is dramatic tension. Also, Priestley is building up suspense and tension for the final chapter. These moments of dramatic tension foreshadow tension later in the play. The tension that was brought up between Gerald and Sheila foreshadow further problems with their relationship. Also when Birling and Gerald are saying they are a nice family, it foreshadows the tension that will appear when the inspector arrives. After the women have left the room, Birling gives advice to the two younger men in the room. He speaks of when he was Erics age. Yes, you dont know what some of these boys get up to nowadays. More money to spend and time to spare than I had when I was Erics age. They worked us hard in those days and kept us short of cash. Thought even then we broke out and had a bit of fun sometimes. He says of the fun he got up to when he was Erics age. He also justifies extra-marital sex, but not directly. He is passing on his sexism to the younger two men. When he speaks of the fun he got up to at Erics age, it foreshadows that Eric has been getting up to fun as well. The main three points of tension are; the tension between men and women, the tension between generations, and the tension between class and social status. This is all shown well before the inspector arrives. This is so we can see that these three points are important and that they would be there regardless of Eva Smiths death. The themes and issues brought up in this play were to help Britain and other countries become a more caring society. The themes and issues brought up were sexism, class and generation. In the book, women have a lower status than men- although Sheila represents change in this topic. Eva Smith represented all of these. She was female, poor and young. In class it shows everyone looks down on someone else. For example, the Crofts look down on the Birlings, who look down on Eva Smith. The Inspector came to their house to try and change it but only succeeded in changing Eric and Sheila. Through generation it shows the younger members of society are more easily influenced. At the time the book was written, society could be described as a triangle with the upper class as the top, with the least people, the middle class in the middle with more people and the working class in the bottom, which was the majority of people. During the war, it was mainly the working class who went and it was decided afterwards that they deserved free health and social welfare. After that Britain became a more caring and sensitive society. In a way, it was Britain giving something back to the working class for fighting for Britain.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Renewable Energy Master Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Renewable Energy Master - Essay Example These are countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom amongst other developed countries. (Ruddiman 2005) The focus mainly has shifted to these countries due to their great contribution to carbon gases originating from their vast industries. Many countries have been responsive whereas others have remained adamant on their earlier stands and carbon pollution has remained as high as was first recorded. The case is however different with the United Kingdom which has established policies to oversee the reduction of carbon emissions from its industries. This campaign has not only been directed at the large scale producers but has also formed a mechanism whereby environmental consciousness is instilled to the very last individual in the consumption line. One way of making this ambitious plan work is tax cuts for those who have enacted measures of cutting down the measures; this is mainly seen in the commercial producers who receive these cuts based on the level of pollution cut. The other is compensation for use of alternative fuel besides fossil; which has been associated with high pollution levels over time. ... This policy was drawn up during the Kyoto agreement where countries were expected to cut the overall carbon emission. This is aggregated and the responsive industries are awarded depending on the level of carbon cut. (Held 2003) Though this has a universal appeal, the UK is a beneficiary and to some extent, it has helped bring the carbon emission level to a reasonably manageable level. The UK government has gone that extra mile towards achieving a healthy environment and one way of doing this is by controlling what is emitted into its environment. Having realised that the link between economic and environment situation is thin and that an effect on one has a considerable effect on the other, the government sought to have a mechanism that tied these two factors together. (Edwards 2001) The most sound was a mechanism where individuals achieve an economic consideration for effort put in taking care of the environment. This said the analysts who composed of various specialists, government representatives and economists embarked on finding that particular bit of environment to be subject to this ambitious plan. It proved a daunting task considering the vast nature and the multiplicity of elements contained in the environment. Especially coming up with one element that greatly affects the environment to an extent that an effect on it would mean an overall effect on the e ntire scope of the general climatic conditions. After careful consideration, the individuals borrowed from the wider Germany consideration of a boost in the renewable energy industry. Renewable energy Solar energy This is natural energy gotten from the sun. To make